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Technical Processing And Storage Of Fruits

Update: 23-09-2015 16:09:25 + GMT7

In recent times, the issue of competition in the market is getting fiercer. The full fruits with categories from grapes, apples pears, ... of the United States, Australia, China, Philippine bananas, to durian, mango Thailand, ... being imported and sold in Vietnam market.

 

The construction and honoring the Vietnam Fruit brand to compete is crucial problems and urgent. If not, Vietnam will lose fruit stand on the market for us, and much less competitive in overseas markets.

 

So, problem handling and preservation of fruits after harvesting is very important. Here are some of the findings of the Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology of several major fruit in recent years:

 

 1 Hurricane Durian management and minimal processing durian: after harvesting, the physiological changes of the durian contains the following features to consider when applying preservation treatments:

 

 - Bonds with high respiratory rates, oxygen consumption much, high heat and peak respiratory heading there, so can be harvested at the old left and continue left nine after picking; Can the left prone to cracking due to dehydration in conditions of high temperature and low humidity; fruit rot disease is the most common disease of durian harvest.

 

- Left vulnerable by cold temperature below 150C.

 

STORAGE: after harvesting, so cooling the left and increase 85-90% relative humidity to slow ripening, reduced fungal growth and dehydration. Not to the left in terms of air humidity below 80%; oxygen concentration not less than 10% and not more than 5% carbon dioxide. Want to act against nine fast, can use the gas as ethylene, acetylene or ethepon, carbur calcium (calcium carbide) processor. If you want to slow the potassium permanganate, nine use substances (KMnO4) to generate ethylene gas or diluting gas concentrations by ventilation; left room for fungus by soaking in a solution belate (5g drug / 4.5 liters) at a temperature of 550C for 10-15 minutes.

 

Minimum processing: to provide consumers durian still taste fresh, preserved nutritional content and ensure food safety.

 

Consumers will be difficult if not primarily processed as peeled hard left, carrying heavy, bulky. Products are processed through stages: embedded aqueous chlorine wash, peel, split zone, zone classification, packaging. Conditions processing facilities (tools, factories, workers, ...) to ensure clean, sanitary product Absolute avoid infection.

 

- Aqueous chlorine used to wash in concentration and pH 6-7 100-150ppm.

 

Time Embedded 3-5 minutes left. All instruments (knives, gloves, ...) should be disinfected with chlorine water. The package must contain citrus durian box Polypropylene (PP). Products should be transported and stored at a temperature of 40C.

 

2. Handling and storage label: the label is no peak fruits when ripe respiratory must therefore timely harvest. Contrary dehydrate quickly and change color quickly after harvest. Left vulnerable to harmful fungi, particularly yeast causing rot inside the fruit.

 Harvest: Harvest label in time when the left turn light, shadow or odoriferous brix above 18%. Labels to long on susceptible plants shed, left cracked. Labels are cut both beams, set in the basket, to avoid falling to the ground. Fruit baskets to be covered to avoid direct sunlight. Time picked in the early morning, cool, then turn right to go home or to purchase as soon as possible. Avoid overload by pressing onto the transport hurtful results.

 

 Classification and treatment: removal of small fruit does not reach the minimum diameter depending on the variety (2,4cm for labels like Standard Hue) as required buyers and fruit deformation, cracks, pest damage.

 

 - Use gas inhalation technique sulfur dioxide (SO2) SO2 Scuba contain liquid to prevent yeast causing rot, fungus and beautiful crust color more appealing light.

 

SO2 concentration for inhalation of about 2 to 2.5% of the time about 30 minutes. Note calculate SO2 concentrations used, to avoid overdose allowed. The ratio between weight and volume from 1/6 to 1/8 a steam chamber. After inhalation gas, residual gases in the chamber to burst, avoid environmental pollution and toxic to humans. When using this technology must have the guidance of technical staff with expertise in this field. Labels are steam combined SO2 and preserved in cold temperature conditions, the shelf life may be 4 weeks. To create SO2 can burn sulfur or acid reacted with meabisulfit clohydic sodium. Currently, the store offers SO2 average gas selling more convenient to use, can inspect and adjust the concentration of safer inhalation.

 

When SO2 inhalation peel color change into yellow nicer. If correct inhalation technique gas had not been turned color brown during storage.

 

If using steam in high doses, can turn left color white. To prevent fungal disease, usually as Aspergillus, Fusarium, Alternaria, Penicillium can be used by dipping in a solution benomul 500ppm concentration for a minute in the absence of treatment with SO2. Labels packed into plastic baskets weighing 10kg / basket, put on some fresh fruit leaf label increases, customer appeal; Storage and transportation of temperature and humidity 95% 3-50C; Especially for temperature, importers exporters should use automatic tracking thermometer recorded the temperature changes during transport, storage place inside the cold storage container. Inspection results are analyzed on a computer.

 

3. Preservation Mangosteen: harvest maturity: To determine the ripeness of fruit is often based on the peel color: pink when ripe, purple when ripe medium and dark purple when fully ripe. The fruit has a hard calyx and stem are harvested stem. The pulp separated from ripe pods. Harvest: now people only mangosteen harvest by hand, picking the green book.

 

Mangosteen after harvest will be put in the plastic basket or bamboo basket lined with newspaper or banana leaves to the handling of cargo. Taken exporting fruit is packed in containers of sponges have just one available site or result in the sponge tray. The fruit is dipped in fungicide, thiophanate-methyl is used in 3 minutes 1000ppm. Appropriate temperature for preserving mangosteen 130C, which by how OTR2000, then results can exist in storages 4 weeks, depending on the crop and harvest maturity. 90 ± 95% humidity.

Fungal incurred in preservation include adjusting air composition (OTR), Diplodia sp., Penicillium sp, Fusarium sp.

 

 Handling and storage 4. Grapefruit:

 

 Harvest: Grapefruit is determined top heading left no breathing (non-climacteric), respiratory intensity CO2 30-40ml / kg / h at a temperature of 280C. So this fruit do not continue ripening after harvest, should harvesting on maturity. For green grapefruit to preserve the long harvest about 210-216 days after fruit. Pink flesh, few seeds, crunchy, juicy, sweet taste more sour: The Brix: 10.5 to 11 Box, 0.3-0.35 acidity, sweetness ratio and acidity (TSS / TA) 30.

 

Blue of left turn pale, oil bag on insolvency. Also, when the correct ripeness left recessed head, if it is true that grapefruit green skin, if grapefruit hybrid green skin when ripe header left protruding. When ripe fruit can knock on bass. These indicators and this sense may refer considered grapefruit harvest index.

 

Should be harvested in the cool and gentle, to avoid the hot sun while making the cells fragile stretch oil, should not collect fruits after a rain or fog, because many fruits rot if stored wet.

 

Tools such as shears harvest to harvest basket instant left, not left to fall to the ground. When harvesting should wear gloves to avoid nail cloth wound left and 20kg categories using plastic baskets. Shears should be cleaned with sodium Hypocloric bacteria Sodium (NaOCl) before use. All tools after harvesting to be cleaned in place tidy.

 

Classification: Grapefruit should classify as directed above in the classification. Grapefruit properly classified by shape green grapefruit, fruit weight and eliminate the damage, with insect bites, punching, scratching, blackened on the shell, ...

 

Handling of bacteria, fungus and reduce weight, dry: after sorting, grapefruit is embedded through Natrihipoclorit 1% solution, to dry and then dipped in a solution citrashine to dry naturally or use a blower or use How wrapping. So how left with mesh polostiren avoid collision damage while transporting fruit before packing in cartons. Cartons divided into 3 classes divided into six compartments, each compartment 1 to restrict the results bumps during transport. Preservation grapefruit at 100C ± 10C temperature, humidity 90 ÷ 95%.

 

Implementer: DARD Vinh Long

Tags
Preserved fruits Preservatives Chemicals agriculture